Focus on Soweto, Gauteng, South Africa
THE construction cranes towering and the cacophony of concrete churning and trucks and cherry pickers rumbling are the sights and sounds of a business boom in SAs most famous township.
Black South Africans are reaping the benefits of a growing economy, and at the heart of it all is Soweto, the sprawling township in the southwest of Johannesburg that was at the centre of the anti-apartheid struggle.
"Historically (Soweto) has been the leader in our national movement toward freedom ... and we expect no less from it in our struggle toward the economic growth of the majority," says Jason Ngobeni, executive director of the department of economic development of Johannesburg, which includes Soweto.
In the last five years or so, new houses have been built in the once overcrowded and underdeveloped area. Massive infrastructure projects have seen roads tarred and electricity installed.
New parks have been landscaped and the derelict landmark power station is to be revamped into a massive entertainment complex.
Most obvious, though, are the shopping malls, once chiefly associated with Johannesburgs wealthy northern suburbs. The latest in Soweto, which former President Nelson Mandela opened today by cutting a gold ribbon, is Maponya Mall, a 65 000-square-metre, R600m development by Richard Maponya, one of Sowetos oldest entrepreneurs.
While most welcome the arrival of the malls, there have been casualties of the boom - those small local shops that have served their communities for years but are now unable to compete with the large retailers.
Around the corner from Maponya Mall, owner of Welcome Butchery and Supermarket, Patrick Siswana, anticipates that for the next six months his business will decline as curious Sowetans see what the mall has to offer.
He says the malls are only serving to widen the gap between the haves and the have-nots.
"The only people that afford is the rich people. The poor will remain very poor."
Others are more upbeat, focusing on what the malls bring: jobs, cheaper prices and an end to trips into the city center to buy anything other than the most basic of groceries.
"Before we had to go to town to buy stuff like shoes and we would spend R10 on a taxi only to buy one thing. Now it is better. You can buy it here," says Solly Hlatshwayo, who is working as a welder on the new mall.
Hlatshwayo, 37, who grew up in Soweto, says life in the township under apartheid was hard with few shops and economic opportunities for residents.
"Now it is getting like a big city," he says. "I feel proud."
Soweto is the most populous black urban residential area in the country with about one million people, nearly a third of Johannesburgs total population.
Its cosmopolitan community has defined black urban style in SA. Soweto now has its own wine festival, was a venue for this years SA Fashion Week and last weekend hosted an international breakdancing competition.
Soweto was created in the early 1960s by the apartheid government to house the labourers, most of them black, who worked in the mines and other industries in the city. Many families were also settled there after they were forced out of their homes in areas declared only for white residents.
It was the scene of the historic 1976 student uprising against apartheid and has been home to some of the countrys most important political figures, such as Mandela and fellow Nobel peace prize Laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
In an acknowledgment of its importance, city officials have invested heavily Sowetos development.
It has become on of Johannesburgs most marketable tourist attractions, drawing numerous tours. Sites associated with the history of the anti-apartheid movement have been upgraded.
Proprietors of a handful of Soweto guest houses are hoping to cash in on the 2010 Soccer World Cup.
"Soweto is an integral part of the city," says Ngobeni. "A lot of the plans the city has are to ensure that the townships that have been previously excluded from mainstream businesses ... are integrated."
Key to this is encouraging an economy so that Sowetans are able spend their cash to the benefit of local businesses.
Ngobeni says the spending power of Soweto amounts to about R5bn annually and that property prices have doubled in the last two years.
The South African economy has seen growth in the last four years of 5%, the highest in 20 years. While this has created a new elite of well-connected black businessmen, the government has been challenged to see that the vast majority of SAs black poor also benefit.
Goolam Ballim, chief economist for Standard Bank, says "nascent gains" are being made with 2,5-million jobs created in the last five years, 70 percent of which have gone to black workers.
In Soweto, the number of people earning between R900 and R1 400 a month has halved from 150,000 people in 1993 while those in the lower middle income groups earning R4 000 rand to R7 000 a month has tripled to 150,000.
"In a relative sense Soweto is getting wealthier," Ballim said. "If mainstream business ignore Soweto, they do it at their peril."
Article from: www.businessday.co.za